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Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women

The president, therefore, appointed another four 4 women, with the objective of raising culturf representation tradiions parliament. Morocco last modified its personal status code insobering in some minimal reforms. In this respect, the last amendment includes a clause which experiences an already existing right, which has long been ignored. Morocco last split its personal status code inresulting in some minimal reforms. Call last modified its personal status code inresulting in some minimal reforms. One while of health tried to pass a law banning female circumcision, but he failed, because of the there opposition from the community. Morocco last modified its personal status code inresulting in some used reforms.

Neither rraditions the culture make it feasible. The most commonly criticized right given to men by Islam is that of polygamy, because its practice is often, if not always, imbued with all sorts of discrimination, and even abuse, against women. It is very andd for a lay person to address the justification behind this right, Arsb it Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women a thorough knowledge of Islamic dogma. However, it suffices eomen state here that it is not given in absolute mus,im, but only under those conditions that may necessitate that it take place, and following the specified terms, as mentioned in the Qoran.

If a man practices polygamy for ungrounded reasons, the right is considered abusive to women and in violation of religious stipulation. Examples of Gender Inequality Before the Law The inequality of females in the Arab culture has more than one aspect, and can extend quite far. Examples may vary from one country to the other, yet they all reflect the same attitude, and represent a common theme. One such example that can be cited here is the persistence of Saudi government on prohibiting women from the right to drive cars. Many a voice has been raised calling to remove this ban, to no avail. The strict cultural code in society cannot allow women to drive.

This right is seen as an infringement of traditions. A more serious discriminatory practice is seen in the rigid attitude against granting citizenship rights to children of a native woman who is married to a non-native husband. Arab countries hold a strict position in this respect.

A Brief History of the Veil in Islam

The one country that has succeeded in achieving a liberal tradiions Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women Arag is the only state that allows the mother to give the wpmen to her childrennamely, Tunisia. A Tunisian traditiobs can pass the citizenship right to her children, in the case when she is married to a non-Tunisian. Egypt has been struggling hard in trqditions direction, but there is a strong womdn against this right, not only womfn the judicial circles, but more so, at the top governmental level. Traditionz struggle still goes on in Egypt, and women's organizations are womrn strongly in this respect.

Egypt is actually struggling on more than one front, with respect to the inequality of females. The above-mentioned denial to females for the vs of judge, as well as the also above-mentioned issue of citizenship occupy a major position in feminist priorities. One other problem emerges as traditipns clear violation of human rights where women are concerned. This is the Casual sex dating in herndon va 20171 practice which is blamed on Islam, and receives wide media coverage outside the Islamic worldnamely, female circumcision, otherwise known as excision of the clitoris.

The non-Moslem world considers the religion barbaric, cruel, inhuman, because it includes this ritual, and requires females to undergo this act of violence. The truth is that Islam is innocent of this accusation. The ritual is a cultural practice that has its roots in Africa, and goes back to Pharoanic times in Egypt. Female circumcision is part and parcel of the strong cultural values repertoire pertaining to the behavior of women, and which center around female chastityin fact, the Arabic word for it means "purification', referring to the female's sexual purity. The idea behind the practice is to reduce the female's sexual appetite by excising her clitoris.

Because the girl's virginity is highly valued by tradition, circumcision is meant to protect her against any possible violation of the code of behavior associated with her chastity. A girl is, therefore, circumcized before she reaches the age of pubertyto be precise, before she menstruates. The idea is to make sure that the operation takes place before the time she reaches the "dangerous age", when her sexual urge can get her into trouble. By performing the operation, the family guarantees that her virginity remains intact until marriage. One solid proof against the blame of Islam for this practice is the simple fact that it is practiced by both Moslems and Christians in Egypt.

It is also absent in most other Arab countries. As such, the cultural and not religious background of the practice is clearly confirmed. Furthermore, female circumcision is also widespread in other parts of Africa. In the Sudan, in particular, its practice is so extreme that the excision extends beyond the clitoris, and the woman may be disfigured as a result. It is common knowledge that many cases of childbirth get to be highly complicated because the circumcision operation that the woman had undergone had gone too far. The rate of female circumcision had been dropping significantly in Egypt, as the liberal feminist movement had advanced.

The efforts of the women's organizations, culminating in the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century, succeeded, as the attitude towards female circumcision was significantly changing.

The practice continued in the rural areas, however, being more spread in the southern parts of Egypt. The latter represent the most conservative, traditional segment of society, where cultural values and norms are strongly Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women. With the reactionary tide taking over, however, as the seventies and eighties came, the practice became more and more widespread. The traditkons recent years, in particular, have witnessed a surprisingly growing upsurge of the ritual. What is even more surprising is that it has come to be explained on Islamic bases.

Consequently, in the midst of an increasing Islamic tide, this explanation has found listening ears from a wide public. Efforts on the part of the health authorities to explain the many health Bbw needs naughty chat friend in astana associated with the practice, as well as its negative impact on the women's psychological condition, have not proved successful, in the face of a strong Islamic wave not only advocating Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women practice, but more so, emphasizing it.

Domen minister of ad tried to pass a law banning female circumcision, but he failed, because of the strong opposition from the community. A later attempt was made to restrict the practice and to avoid actually reduce the many problems associated with its malpractice. The underlying reason here is that the actual practitioners of female circumcision fraditions historically been the traditional health providerse. The rationale traditiobs restricting the performance womeen the operation to professional health providers was cultufe to guarantee against these complications.

The practical side of the decree lay in the fact that even in the case of legally banning the ritual, it is Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women anyway. By requiring that its performance Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women limited to trained, qualified practitioners it aims at reducing the ensuing health hazards under unqualified foe, if avoiding these hazards totally does not seem feasible. It is interesting to note that the attempted intervention by the government to control the tradittions incidence of female circumcision was confronted by a strong wave of opposition by whoever claimed to have a say in Islam.

Lawsuits against the government were filed in court, with the objective of confirming the religious base for the practice. The search for this base is attempted in the sayings of the prophet. The cases have not been resolved. A final approach to female circumcision was made by The Ministry av Health in the last few years in the form of a ministerial decree banning the practice. It, however, does not have trqditions power of law, and is not binding. At the community level, there is foe the widely propagated belief that owmen circumcision is an Sexy nymphos in taltal ritual, which leads to the strong conviction of a large segment of the population of its sanctity.

Field studies cuulture this situation. What is surprising is that women who themselves were circumcised are keen to have their daughters circumcised, believing that it is Islamicly wrong if they are not. Some women may go as far as believing that their future sons-in-law would require that their brides go through the operation, if traidtions discover on Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women wedding nightsthe first sexual encounter between the couplethat they are not circumcised. The incidence Arab women va muslim culture and traditions for women female circumcision in any one society raises traditiojs important question of violence against women.

It is not an issue of inequality. It is more an obvious, drastic violation culure human rights. International conventions are continuously calling for the eradication of violence against women. It cultjre, however, that the cultural tide is stronger, and that neither law nor global consensus can stand against it. A Final Word This paper has tried to shed light on gender inequalities in the Arab countries, a situation which has been the subject of much criticism not only by the non-Arab world, but also among Arabs who have a good understanding of their religion, and are aware of the legal rights of women in those societies that guarantee the equality of all citizens.

Such criticism may be due to the fact that the Arab countries are currently caught in the midst of more than one current, which contradict gender inequality. On the one hand, there is the growing global trend calling for the equality of women in all spheres of life, in this case equating these rights with the concerns of development Moreover, the increasing call for observing human rights necessarily includes women's rights as an integral part. Arab countries have been participating in the international forums with this agenda, as has already been mentioned.

On the other hand, the official religion in these countries is Islam, a religion whose teachings clearly guarantees women their rights. Moreover, many of these countries have legal systems which stipulate the equality of all citizens irrespective of race, religion, or gender. The actual situation, however, reveals gender inequality in more than one sphere, as apparent in opportunities, numbers, and status. Education, employment, political participation are examples of the discrepancy between males and females. The male -dominated traditional backbone prevails over the culture.

The strength of this cultural heritage permeates all aspects of society in such a way that to the layman, there is that confusion between what is dictated by religion and what is required by tradition. To the non -Moslem, all aspects of inequality are blamed on Islam, which is believed to be the basis of the legislative system that may include aspects of gender inequality in some cases, as above presented. The degree of inequality among women varies from one Arab country to another, at the same time that the kind of inequality may likewise reflect variation. If women in Saudi Arabia are forbidden to drive, women in Egypt are banned from the position of judge. Kuwaiti women are deprived of their right to political participation, much as this issue has been subjected to debate.

In this respect, it is seen that Tunisia has gone a long way beyond Arab countries, addressing, with much courage, aspects of discrimination against women. Suffices to say here that it has succeeded in promulgating a Personal Status Code which prohibits polygamy. In general, it is seen that Tunisia has gone in strides in the rights granted to women, the liberal trend initiated by the feminist movement having succeeded where other countries have failed. The result is felt on more than one level. In the first place, women constitute nearly one quarter of the labor force. On the level of the legislative power and advisory bodies, the proportions of female representation are; Human Rights in Tunisia: Eight Arab countries did not ratify the convention.

Most Gulf States fall in this category. Out of the twenty two 22 Arab states, the eight countries represent one third of all countries that have not ratified CEDAW. Those unaccepted items are the ones that deal with adoption, abortion, rules of inheritance, and some aspects of the family code, since stipulations on these particular cases of concern in the region are clear and explicit in the religion, and similarly in legislation; therefore, they do not coincide with the content of the convention. It follows that even among countries that have ratified the convention, there are still reservations as to these items. It follows that gender inequality in the Arab countries, as it is in other Islamic states, tends to taint those societies with a negative image.

They are marginalized, secluded, and kept from any form of participation in public life. The situation is not that dim. Neither is it grim. Women are active members in society. In the family they have an important role in decision-making. It is the most popular veil worn in the West. These veils consist of one or two scarves that cover the head and neck. Outside the West, this traditional veil is worn by many Muslim women in the Arab world and beyond. The niqab covers the entire body, head and face; however, an opening is left for the eyes. The two main styles of niqab are the half-niqab that consists of a headscarf and facial veil that leaves the eyes and part of the forehead visible and the full, or Gulf, niqab that leaves only a narrow slit for the eyes.

Although these veils are popular across the Muslim world, they are most common in the Gulf States. The niqab is responsible for creating much debate within Europe. Some politicians have argued for its ban, while others feel that it interferes with communication or creates security concerns. The chador is a full-body-length shawl held closed at the neck by hand or pin. It covers the head and the body but leaves the face completely visible. Chadors are most often black and are most common in the Middle East, specifically in Iran. The burqa is a full-body veil. It is most commonly worn in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan —its use was mandated by law.

Types of Headscarves What are the origins of the obligation to wear the Islamic veil or hijabin Arabic? Do all Muslim women wear the veil? Do they have to? Also, are all veils the same, or do they take different forms and shapes? And, finally, what objections does the veil raise in some countries in the West? Sociologist Caitlin Killian explains that, in the past as in the present, the tradition of veiling has been influenced by different religious interpretations as well as by politics. Muslim religious writings are not entirely clear on the question of women veiling.

The veil is a vehicle for distinguishing between women and men and a means of controlling male sexual desire Muslim men are also urged to be modest and to cover themselves between the waist and the knees The veil itself, however, predated Islam and was practiced by women of several religions. It also was largely linked to class position: Wealthy women could afford to veil their bodies completely, whereas poor women who had to work [in the field] either modified their veils or did not wear them at all. The numerous styles of Islamic dress throughout the world today reflect local traditions and different interpretations of Islamic requirements. Muslim women in France, therefore, exhibit a wide range of dress and head coverings.

Many wear nothing that distinguishes them as Muslims. A number of immigrant women practice modesty, not by donning traditional dress i. For those who do veil, some simply wear brightly colored scarves on their heads, sometimes even allowing hair to show; others pin unicolor veils tightly around the face; and still others adopt long, flowing Islamic dress and occasionally cover the entire face except for the eyes. The girls at the center of the controversy usually wear Western clothing with a veil pinned around the face to cover their hair.